The city of the future 城市的未來

More and more people are living in them: what is the future for our cities?
What will our cities look like in 30 years? Would you still want to live in one?

105

未來城市的發展會是什麼樣的,我們還會喜歡在未來城市中居住嗎?人們移居城市,追求更好的工作和生活。隨著人口增長,越來越多的普通城市在逐漸轉變成人口超過一千萬的大城市。本期《隨身英語》討論城市發展隨之帶來的機遇和挑戰。

課文內容

Vocabulary: urbanisation 詞彙:城市化

For centuries, people have moved to and lived in cities. These sprawling urban centres are places to find work, friends and fun. It’s no surprise that they continue to grow as more and more people flood in hoping to make the most of the opportunities they offer but adding to the congestion and pollution that already exists.

According to a report by the United Nations, 54 per cent of the world’s population lives in urban areas and it predicts that by 2050, this figure will have increased to around 70 per cent. But as more and more people migrate from the countryside to the city to get better opportunities, they can end up with nowhere to live.

This is true in places such as Rio de Janeiro, where migrants can’t rent or buy a home, and they end up building their own communities and houses on unoccupied land. These are called shanty towns – poor communities where the houses are built out of cheap materials like corrugated iron and plastic sheeting – and often don’t have any electricity or water supply.

These are, of course, not the megacities of the future we want to see. Some serious urban planning is needed to make our cities of the future good, safe and modern places to live in. This involves improving the infrastructure, the housing conditions and also the opportunities for education and employment.

Something urban planners are looking at now is the creation of ‘smart cities’. According to John Rossant, founder and chairman of the non-profit organisation New Cities Foundation, technology is the way forward. He thinks that it’s generally accepted that “cloud computing, ubiquitous internet, robust 5G networks etc, will transform our cities.” He says technology is really “a game changer“, in urbanisation. It would collect large amounts of data about how a city is performing and may improve how a city functions.

This may sound like a utopian view. For now, some cities and conurbations around the world are trying out more low-tech schemes to try and make them desirable places to live and work in. Building shared-ownership housing and improving public transport are some ways. And encouraging cycling and building bike lanes can keep the population healthy and cut down on smog. What would make your city a better place to live in?

詞彙表

sprawling 雜亂無序地擴展
urban centre 城市中心
congestion 擁堵,堵塞
pollution 汙染
migrate 移居
shanty town (大城市中心或近郊的)簡陋棚屋區
megacity 大城市(由指人口超過一千萬的城市)
urban planning 城市規劃
infrastructure 基礎設施
ubiquitous 似乎無處不在的
a game changer 改變游戲規則的人或物
to function 運行,工作
utopian 烏托邦似的
conurbation (由多個城市連接組成的)大城市
desirable 令人嚮往的
public transport 公共交通

測驗與練習

1. 閱讀課文並回答問題。

1. According to the United Nations, how much of the world’s population will be living in a city by 2050?

2. True or false? Shanty towns have good quality housing built for poor people.

3. What name is given to a city that uses technology to help it function properly?

4. Name one benefit of encouraging cycling in a city.

5. What two English words is ‘smog’ a combination of?

2. 請你在不參考課文的情況下完成下列練習。選擇一個意思合適的單字填入句子的空格處。

1. Overnight road works were blamed for the serious ______ on the motorway last night.

congesting      congestion      congested      congest

2. The new building project led to large numbers of ______ moving to the city looking for jobs

pollution      infrastructure      migrants      utopians

3. These days coffee shops are ______: you’re never more than a few steps away from your next cappuccino!

ubiquitous     utopian           sprawling         conurbations

4. A new train line is being planned to serve major ______ between London and Birmingham.

shanty towns      public transport     conurbations     functions

5. Los Angeles is a ______ city that seems to go on for miles.

sprawled       shanty town       pollution         sprawling

答案

1. 閱讀課文並回答問題。

1. According to the United Nations, how much of the world’s population will be living in a city by 2050?
70 percent.

2. True or false? Shanty towns have good quality housing built for poor people.
False. Shanty towns are poor communities where the houses are built out of cheap materials like corrugated iron and plastic sheeting.

3. What name is given to a city that uses technology to help it function properly?
Smart cities.

4. Name one benefit of encouraging cycling in a city.
It keeps people healthy and it reduces pollution.

5. What two English words is ‘smog’ a combination of?
Smoke and fog.

2. 請你在不參考課文的情況下完成下列練習。選擇一個意思合適的單字填入句子的空格處。

1. Overnight road works were blamed for the serious congestion on the motorway last night.

2. The new building project led to large numbers of migrants moving to the city looking for jobs.

3. These days coffee shops are ubiquitous: you’re never more than a few steps away from your next cappuccino!

4. A new train line is being planned to serve major conurbations between London and Birmingham.

5. Los Angeles is a sprawling city that seems to go on for miles.

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