第三類條件句用法總結

157

英語中的條件句用來對過去、現在或將來發生的事情或情況作出假設。在對過去的情景作出假設、假想時,應該使用 「第三類條件句(the third conditional)」。這類句子的典型結構是:「If + 主語 + 過去完成時,主語 + would have + 過去分詞」。看視頻,快速學習 「第三類條件句」 的主要用法。

文字稿

Welcome to BBC Learning English. I’m Sam and today we’re talking about the third conditional.

The third conditional is a little strange because we’re talking about something that didn’t happen in the past. Why would we do that? Well, because sometimes we want to imagine a different outcome.

A friend of mine came to visit me yesterday. It was a surprise, so when I opened my front door, I said: “If I’d known you were coming, I would have baked a cake!”

Did I know she was coming? No. Did I bake a cake? No.

So I’m imagining a different result.

Because we’re talking about an imaginary past, we use:

If + the subject + the past perfect, the subject + would have + past participle

And you can also swap those round: What would you have done if you’d known your friend was coming?

用法總結

1. 句式

典型的第三類條件句的句式如下:

If + 主語 + 過去完成時,主語 + would have + 過去分詞

這個句式的前半部分(If + 主語 + 過去完成時)被稱作 「條件從句」 或 「if 從句」;後半部分(主語 + would have + 過去分詞)被稱作 「主句」。條件從句(if 從句)和主句之間的順序可以互換,意思不變。主句在前時,主句和從句之間不使用逗號。

  • If I’d known you were coming, I would have baked a cake.
  • I would have baked a cake if I’d known you were coming.

2. 用法

第三類條件句被用來對過去不曾發生的事情作設想。條件從句(if 從句)對過去作設想,主句講述設想的結果。

  • If I’d been born in Spain, I would have learned Spanish, not English!
  • What would you have done if you’d failed your test?