Assessing the world’s fungi 對世界真菌生存現狀的評估調查

Fungi is all around us and has many benefits. Now scientists have discovered there are many more species to discover.
Fungi for life.

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研究人員們首次對世界上真菌的生存狀況開展了大規模的評估調查。他們發現,真菌王國對於地球萬物來說至關重要,儘管目前世界上約有三百八十萬種真菌種類,但仍有超過90%是科學未知的。

文字稿

From foods to medicines, to recycling nutrients – fungi are vital for life on Earth. But with many hidden away in the soil, or invisible to the naked eye, they’re often overlooked.

從食物到藥材,到再生營養物質,真菌對地球上的生命來說至關重要。但由於很多真菌都被埋在土壤裡或用肉眼無法看到,所以人們經常會忽視它們的重要性。

Scientists have pulled together information on these curious organisms to highlight gaps in our knowledge. DNA studies suggest there may be almost four million different fungi, but science has identified less than ten per cent of them. And only about 50 species have been evaluated for the extinction Red List compared with thousands of plants and animals.

科學家們收集了有關這種奇異有機體的信息,從而引起人們對這一知識空白的注意。DNA 研究顯示,世界上可能有近四百萬種不同的真菌,但科學僅能辨別出不到10%。和成千上萬的植物和動物相比,科學家們只對約五十個真菌物種是否能列入國際自然保護聯盟瀕危物種紅色名錄中進行了評估。

Director of Science at Kew, Professor Kathy Willis, says we ignore fungi at our peril. Fungi have potential for breaking down plastics and generating new types of biofuels and medicines. But they have a negative side – destroying crops and wiping out trees such as the ash and the elm.

英國邱園的科學總監凱西·威利斯說,忽略真菌的重要性會給我們帶來危險。真菌有分解塑料和創造新生物燃料及藥品種類的潛能。但它也有負面影響,即破壞莊稼、摧毀如白蠟樹和橡樹等樹木。

1. 詞彙表

nutrients 營養物質
vital 至關重要的
overlooked 被忽視、被忽略
curious 奇異的,不同尋常的
organisms 有機體
evaluated 被評估
Red List 國際自然保護聯盟瀕危物種紅色名錄
at our peril 給我們帶來危險
breaking down 分解
biofuels 生物燃料
wiping out 摧毀

2. 閱讀理解:請在讀完上文後,回答下列問題 。 

1. According to the report, why have some types of fungi not been discovered?

2. How many types of fungi might exist in the World?

3. True or false? More species of fungi have been identified as being at risk of extinction than species of plants and animals.

4. According to the report, what are some of the possible benefits of fungi?

3. 答案

1. According to the report, why have some types of fungi not been discovered?
Many types of fungi are hidden away in the soil, or invisible to the naked eye.

2. How many types of fungi might exist in the World?
DNA studies suggest there maybe four million different fungi in the World.

3. True or false? More species of fungi have been identified as being at risk of extinction than species of plants and animals.
False. Only about 50 species have been evaluated for the extinction Red List compared with thousands of plants and animals.

4. According to the report, what are some of the possible benefits of fungi?
Fungi have potential for breaking down plastics and generating new types of biofuels and medicines.

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