Deadly olive tree disease across Europe ‘could cost billions’ 「橄欖樹麻風病」 蔓延歐洲 可造成重大經濟損失

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研究人員表示,一種致命病原體對歐洲橄欖樹的侵害所造成的經濟損失可達200多億歐元。研究人員模擬了這種名叫葉緣焦枯病菌(Xylella fastidiosa)的病原體未來的最壞影響,這種病原體已經殺死了意大利的大片樹木。

Xylella is considered to be one of the most dangerous pathogens for plants anywhere in the world. Transmitted by sap-sucking insects, the bacterium has caused Italy’s olive production to decline by 60% since it was first discovered in 2013. The infection has now been found in trees in Spain, France and Portugal.

葉緣焦枯病菌(Xylella)被認為是世界上最危險的植物病原體之一。這種病菌通過吸吮植物汁液的昆蟲傳播,自2013年首次發現以來,已導致意大利橄欖產量下降了60%。現在, 在西班牙、法國和葡萄牙的樹木中也發現了這種病菌感染。

As there are no treatment at present, researchers modelled what would happen if olive trees were wiped out across major producing countries. They suggest that the economic cost to Europe would be in excess of €20 billion, with likely shortages and price increases for consumers of olive oil.

由於目前還沒有治療方法,研究人員模擬了如果橄欖樹在主要生產國全部死亡後會發生的情況。他們認為,歐洲的經濟損失會超過200億歐元,包括消費者可能面臨橄欖油短缺和價格上漲。

The researchers say that the best hope of avoiding the drastic scenario is to develop resistant varieties of olive trees. While this approach may be slow, the authors say, it’s by far the best option in the long run.

研究人員表示,避免這種極端狀況的最大希望是開發出抗性品種。雖然這個方法可能很慢,但此研究的作者們說,從長遠來看,這是目前最好的選擇。

詞彙

pathogens 病原體
transmitted 被傳播
sap-sucking 吸取(植物)汁液的
bacterium 細菌(單數)
infection 感染
wiped out 完全毀滅、死亡
shortages 短缺
drastic 極端的
resistant 具有抵抗力的
varieties 不同的品種
in the long run 從長遠來看

閱讀理解:請在讀完上文後,回答下列問題 。

1. True or false? The infection of Xylella has been found in trees in several countries in Europe.

2. How is Xylella transmitted?

3. What would be the economic cost to Europe if olive trees were wiped out across major producing countries?

4. What is the best option for avoiding the trees being wiped out by the disease, according to researchers?

答案

1. True or false? The infection of Xylella has been found in trees in several countries in Europe.
True. The infection has now been found in trees in Italy, Spain, France and Portugal.

2. How is Xylella transmitted?
Xylella is transmitted by sap-sucking insects.

3. What would be the economic cost to Europe if olive trees were wiped out across major producing countries?
Researchers suggest that it would be more than €20 billion, with likely shortages and price increases for consumers of olive oil.

4. What is the best option for avoiding the trees being wiped out by the disease, according to researchers?
According to researchers, the best hope of avoiding the drastic scenario is to develop resistant varieties of olive trees.