Gender gap in ADHD diagnosis 過動症診斷中的性別差異

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頂尖心理學家警告說,性別偏見使許多患有注意不足過動障礙(又稱過動症)的女性無法被確診。

Research suggests ADHD is three to four times more likely to be detected in childhood in boys as they tend to exhibit more disruptive behaviours.

研究表明,過動症在男孩童年時期被發現的可能性比在女孩童年時期高出三到四倍,因為男孩往往表現出更具擾亂性的行為。

The symptoms in girls tend to be more subtle: less hyperactive, more inattentive. The diagnoses gap between males and females appears to shrink in adulthood, but psychologists say the bias can remain.

女孩的症狀往往不大明顯:她們沒那麼過動亢奮,而是更多地表現在注意力不集中。成年後,男性和女性之間的診斷差距似乎縮小了,但心理學家指出,這一偏見可能仍然存在。

The ADHD Foundation says increased awareness is needed in health and educational settings about how the condition can present differently. A late diagnosis can negatively impact on relationships, careers, and mental health.

注意力不足過動障礙基金會表示,人們需要提高醫療和教育領域對這種疾病的認識,明白它有不同的臨床表現。延遲診斷可能會給人際關係、職業和心理健康帶來負面影響。

In England, NICE guidance has been updated to make it easier for doctors to detect women and girls with ADHD. Work to improve neurodevelopmental services is underway in Scotland and Wales. But there are currently no dedicated services for adults with ADHD in Northern Ireland.

在英格蘭,國家衛生與保健優化研究所(The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence)已經更新指導意見,使醫生更容易發現患有過動症的女性和女孩。蘇格蘭和威爾士正在努力改善其神經發育領域的服務。但在北愛爾蘭,目前還沒有專門提供給患有過動症的成年人的服務。

詞彙表

detected 被發現
exhibit 表現出
disruptive 擾亂性的,破壞性的
subtle 微妙的,不明顯的
hyperactive 過於亢奮的,過於活躍的
inattentive 注意力不集中的
shrink (差距)縮減
awareness 意識,認識
neurodevelopmental 神經發育的

閱讀理解:請在讀完上文後,回答下列問題。

1. How many times more likely is the discovery of ADHD in boys than girls during childhood?

2. True or false? The usual symptoms of ADHD in girls tend to be more subtle.

3. What potential issues are mentioned in people whose ADHD is diagnosed later on in life?

4. At the time of this article, which part of the UK currently has no dedicated services related to ADHD for adults?

答案  

1. How many times more likely is the discovery of ADHD in boys than girls during childhood?
Research suggests ADHD is three to four times more likely to be detected in childhood in boys as they tend to exhibit more disruptive behaviours.

2. True or false? The usual symptoms of ADHD in girls tend to be more subtle.
True. The symptoms in girls tend to be more subtle: less hyperactive, more inattentive.

3. What potential issues are mentioned in people whose ADHD is diagnosed later on in life?
A late diagnosis can negatively impact on relationships, careers, and mental health.

4. At the time of this article, which part of the UK currently has no dedicated services related to ADHD for adults?
There are currently no dedicated services for adults with ADHD in Northern Ireland.