區分表示 “避免” 的字:avoid, avert, prevent, refrain

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內容簡介

聽眾 Jack 想知道動詞 “avoid、avert、prevent” 和 “refrain” 之間的區別,其中,哪個字可以用來表示 “躲避某人”?哪個字可以表示 “阻止他人做某事”?哪個字有 “阻止自己做某事” 的意思?在本期節目中,主持人 Beth 和佳瑩辨析這四個字的含義和用法。

歡迎你加入並和我們一起討論英語學習的方方面面,請透過微博 “BBC英語教學” 或郵件與我們取得聯絡,我們的信箱地址是 [email protected]

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(關於臺詞的備註: 請注意這不是廣播節目的逐字稿件,本文稿可能沒有體現錄製、編輯過程中對節目做出的改變。)

Jiaying
大家好,歡迎收聽 BBC英語教學的 “你問我答” 節目,和我一起主持這期節目的還有我的同事 Beth。

Beth
Hi, everyone!

Jiaying
本期節目要回答聽眾 Jack 的問題,問題是:

Question
你好!我是 Jack,“Avoid、avert、prevent” 和 “refrain” 似乎都有 “避免” 的意思,請問它們的用法都一樣嗎?

Jiaying
謝謝聽眾 Jack 發來的問題,Beth,這四個字的含義是不是很相似呢?

Beth
Yes, so to answer Jack’s question, ‘avoid’, ‘avert’, ‘refrain’ and ‘prevent’ have related meanings and uses. They can all be used to talk about ‘stopping a bad outcome’. However, there are some differences.

Let’s first look at ‘avoid’. ‘Avoid’ means ‘miss’ or ‘stay away from someone or something negative’. It’s often used for situations that are in progress, but not always. Let’s hear some examples.

Examples
I crossed the road to avoid talking to Jonathan. We argued last week.
(我為了不和喬納森說話走到了馬路的另一邊,我們上禮拜吵架了。)

Having an open conversation is a good way to avoid any misunderstandings.
(開誠布公地交談是避免誤會的好方法。)

Jiaying
所以,動詞 “avoid” 的意思是 “遠離、躲避某人或避免壞事”,常用來談論 “避免一個將要發生的負面事情”,但並不總是如此,那 “avert” 該怎麼用呢?

Beth
‘Avert’ is quite formal. It means ‘stop something bad from happening’. And it’s most commonly used when talking about very serious issues, such as catastrophes and disasters. Here are some examples:

Examples
The company tried to raise funds from investors to avert financial collapse.
(這家公司試圖從投資者那裡籌集資金,以避免陷入財務危機。)

People around the world are working together to try to avert a climate disaster.
(世界各地的人們都在齊心協力、努力避免氣候災難。)

Jiaying
所以,就如剛剛 Beth 講到的,在談論 “避免(災難)” 等非常嚴肅的問題時,最常用 “avert”,那麼,動詞 “prevent” 該怎麼用呢?

Beth
‘Prevent’ can be used to talk about stopping both bad and good things happening. It’s often used to talk about something before it has started, but not always.

Jiaying
That’s interesting. 所以,動詞 “prevent” 的意思是 “防止某件事情發生”,可以用來談論 “防止好事或壞事的發生”,另外,“prevent” 常強調 “預防一件還沒有發生的事情”,我們透過兩個例句來鞏固動詞 “prevent” 的用法。

Examples
My injury prevented me from going on holiday.
(我的傷讓我不能去度假。)

It’s good to re-use plastic bags to prevent too much waste.
(重複使用塑料袋可以防止過多浪費。)

Jiaying
除了表示 “防止、預防某事發生” 以外,動詞 “prevent” 還有其它的用法嗎?

Beth
Yes. ‘Prevent’ can be used to say ‘stop someone from doing something’, usually with ‘from’. None of the other words are used in this way. For example:

Examples
You need to prevent your child from kicking the seat in front of them while in flight.
(你得阻止你的孩子在飛機飛行期間亂踢前面的座位。)

His fear of social situations prevented him from going to the party.
(他對社交場合的恐懼使他不敢參加這次聚會。)

Jiaying
在上面的例句中,動詞 “prevent” 都用來表示 “阻止某人做某事 ”:“prevent someone from doing something”。

除了 “prevent” 以外,動詞 “refrain” 也可以用來描述人的動作,對嗎?

Beth
Yes. But, unlike ‘prevent’, we don’t use it to talk about stopping other people. We use ‘refrain’ to mean ‘stop ourselves from doing something’, often to stop a negative outcome. ‘Refrain’ is also quite formal.

Jiaying
這樣看來,“refrain” 的意思是 “克制,避免”,強調 “某人阻止自己做某事 refrain from doing something”,從而 “防止產生負面的結果”,“Refrain” 是一個較正式的字,請聽兩個例句。

Examples
I refrain from eating a lot of chocolate, so I don’t gain weight.
(我克制自己不吃很多巧克力,以免長胖。)

Please refrain from speaking too loudly during the film.
(請勿在電影放映期間大聲說話。)

Jiaying
來總結一下:“avoid、avert、prevent” 可以用來表示 “阻止負面結果的發生”,其中,動詞 “avoid” 指 “遠離、躲避某人,避免糟糕的情況”,“Avert” 較正式,用來談論 “避免災難等非常嚴肅的問題”。“Prevent” 有 “防止事情發生” 的意思,也可以用在 “prevent someone from doing something” 的結構中,表示 “阻止某人做某事”。動詞 “refrain” 的意思是 “克制自己不去做某事”。

Beth
Thank you for your question, Jack.

Jiaying
如果你在英語學習中遇到了難題,歡迎透過微博向我們提問。我們的微博帳號是 “BBC英語教學”,你也可以發郵件給我們,信箱地址是:[email protected] 感謝收聽,再見。

Beth
Bye!