單字 “being” 的用法

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內容簡介

聽眾 Evelyne 想知道單字 “being” 的含義和用法,“Being” 既可以作名詞,也可以作動詞,作名詞時用法多樣,比如,在搭配 “human being”、“came into being” 和 “my entire being” 當中,“being” 的意思都不同,此外,“being” 還是助動詞 “be” 的現在分詞,請聽節目,學習 “being” 的常見用法。

歡迎你加入並和我們一起討論英語學習的方方面面,請透過微博 “BBC英語教學” 或郵件與我們取得聯絡,我們的信箱地址是 [email protected]

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Jiaying
大家好,歡迎收聽 BBC英語教學的 “你問我答” 節目,I’m Jiaying.

Roy
And I’m Roy. Welcome!

Jiaying
本期節目的問題來自聽眾 Evelyne,問題是這樣的:

Question
你好!能否講解一下 “being” 的意思和用法?謝謝!

Roy
This is an excellent question, Evelyne, thank you. ‘Being’ is more frequently used as a verb, but it can also be a noun. Jiaying, shall we start with the noun?

Jiaying
好的,就如同 Roy 說的,“being” 作名詞的使用頻率要略低於它作動詞的使用頻率,但因為名詞 “being” 的近義詞不多,所以確實有必要來學習一下它的用法,“Being” 的第一個名詞含義是 “生物,生命”。

Roy
Yes, with this meaning it’s a countable noun and we often use it with the adjectives ‘living’ or ‘human’ before it.

Jiaying
在表達這個含義時,“being” 是可數名詞,常見搭配有 “living being(生命,生物)”、“human being(人類)”,請聽兩個例句。

Examples
Many people want to know if there are living beings on other planets.
(許多人想知道其它星球上是否存在生命。)

Human beings are social creatures – we need the company of others.
(人類是社會動物,我們需要他人的陪伴。)

Jiaying
接下來,看看 “being” 的第二個名詞用法 —— “存在,生存”,這裡,“being” 不可數,常用於不同的搭配中,談論事物 “開始存在的一刻”。

Roy
Exactly! This can be quite a formal use of ‘being’ and you’ll often hear it used with the verbs ‘come’ or ‘bring’, followed by ‘into’. Let’s listen to those in examples now.

Examples
The European Union came into being in 1993.
(歐盟成立於1993年。)

When the new railroad is built, it will bring many new towns into being.
(當這條新鐵路建成時,將衍生多座新城鎮。)

Jiaying
在第一個例句中,搭配 “came into being” 的意思是 “成立了”;在第二個例句中,搭配 “bring something into being” 的意思是 “使存在”。

下面,我們看 “being” 的第三個名詞含義 —— “人的本質、本性”,是不可數名詞,用來誇張地強調內心的感受。

Roy
Yes! We use ‘being’ with this meaning to say that we feel something strongly. And because we’re often talking about our own feelings, it’s common to hear this use in the first person with ‘my being’.

Jiaying
因為名詞 “being” 多用來談論自身的感受,所以在第一人稱的句子中常聽到搭配 “my being(全心全意地,打心底地)”,請聽兩個例句。

Examples
I love my children with my entire being.
(我全身心地愛我的孩子們。)

I knew Ruth was lying – I could feel it in the core of my being.
(我知道露絲當時在說謊,我從內心深處感覺到了這一點。)

Jiaying
下面,我們來看看 “being” 的動詞用法。

Roy
Let’s do it! ‘Being’ is the present participle of ‘be’ and, as you probably know, we use the verb ‘be’ a lot in English!

Jiaying
We do! 作現在分詞使用時,“being” 用在進行時態中,雖然助動詞 “be” 後面接現在分詞 “being” 的句式乍一看有點怪,但我們可以用它來描述某人一時的行為,注意,助動詞 “be” 會因主語的人稱和句子的時態發生變化。

Roy
Yes, it may seem strange but it’s how we describe someone’s temporary behaviour. These examples might help.

Examples
My professor was being very kind to me yesterday – she knew I wasn’t feeling well.
(我的教授昨天對我很體貼,她知道我身體不舒服。)

David, please stop kicking my seat – you’re being very annoying!
(大衛,請你別再踢我的座位了,你這樣很煩人!)

Jiaying
我們還可以在現在進行式或過去進行式的被動結構中使用現在分詞 “being”,相信大家已經知道,被動語態用來強調動作的執行者是未知的或不重要的,被動語態的結構是:主語 + be 動詞 + 過去分詞,注意,be 動詞隨時態和人稱變化。

Roy
So when we use the past continuous or present continuous in the passive, for example, we need to use ‘being’. ‘Being’ will have the verb ‘be’ before it, and the past participle of the main verb after it. Here are two examples of that.

Examples
Two people were being arrested as I walked past the supermarket yesterday.
(昨天我經過超市時,有兩個人被逮捕了。)

My son takes swimming lessons. He’s being taught how to do backstroke at the moment.
(我兒子上游泳課,他正在學習如何仰泳。)

Jiaying
我們還可以在從句或句子的開頭使用 “being”,來解釋一件事情或說明某人做一件事情的原因。

Roy
In this case, ‘being’ is often followed by a noun or an adjective, and it can be the only verb in the clause. Here are your examples.

Examples
Adam didn’t use to be very good at sharing his toys, being an only child.
(作為獨生子,亞當過去不願意把他的玩具分給其他人玩。)

Being old, my grandparents tend to stay at home.
(由於年事已高,我祖父母通常留在家裡。)

Jiaying
希望在聽了以上的講解後,聽眾 Evelyne 對單字 “being” 的主要用法有了更深的理解。

Roy
Yes, and thank you again for the very useful question. Don’t forget that anyone listening can send in their questions, too!

Jiaying
我們的微博帳號是 “BBC英語教學”。你也可以寄郵件給我們,信箱地址是:[email protected] 謝謝收聽 “你問我答” 節目,我是佳瑩,我們下次再會!

Roy
Until next time, bye-bye.

Jiaying
Goodbye, everyone.