用法解析:單字字尾加 s 變新詞

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內容簡介

兩位聽眾來信詢問單詞末尾加字母 “s” 後,單字的含義是否會發生變化,如 “mean” 和 “means”,簡單來說:有些規則名詞變複數的方式是加 “s”,單複數均指同一類事物,也有些單字加 “s” 後,並非原字複數,雖然兩字所指的事物不同,但彼此有一定的關聯,另有一些字在加 “s” 後,與原字所指的事物和使用的語境均無關,主持人 Beth 和佳瑩在本期節目中分析這三類字語的用法。

歡迎你加入並和我們一起討論英語學習的方方面面,請透過微博 “BBC英語教學” 或郵件與我們取得聯絡,我們的信箱地址是 [email protected]

文字稿

(關於臺詞的備註: 請注意這不是廣播節目的逐字稿件,本文稿可能沒有體現錄製、編輯過程中對節目做出的改變。)

Beth
Hello and welcome to Question and Answer of the Week. I’m Beth.

Jiaying
我是佳瑩,我們聽一下本期節目中要回答的問題,有兩名聽眾都有著類似的疑惑,問題如下:

Question
你好,有些單字加了字母 “s” 就是另外一種意思,不是第三人稱單數,而是像 “mean” 和 “means”,還有 “premise” 和 “premises”。

Beth
Thank you for your questions! It’s most common to add an -s to the end of a verb to form third person singular, like ‘eat’ and ‘eats’.

Jiaying
除了 Beth 說到的在部分動詞變第三人稱單數時,在字尾加字母 “s” 的情況以外,我們也在英語名詞後加 “s”,使其變為複數,比如:單字 “tree” 的複數 “trees”,這裡,字本身的意思沒有變化,但有時在單字後加 “s” 會改變字義。

Beth
Yes. Even if it seems like some words have completely different meanings with and without -s, such as ‘mean’ and ‘means’, there is usually still a connection between the two words.

Jiaying
通常情況下,在特定字語末尾加 “s” 後,雖然字義發生變化,但兩者的含義是有關聯的。

Beth
Let’s look at an example – ‘wood’ and ‘woods’. The singular uncountable noun, ‘wood’, is a natural material that comes from a tree and is used to build or make things, like tables and chairs.

Jiaying
是的,“wood” 指 “木頭”,在末尾加上 “s” 後 “woods” 指 “樹林”,也就是 “一片比森林小、被樹木覆蓋的區域”。

Beth
So, you can see the connection here between the material, ‘wood’, and a group of trees, ‘woods’.

A similar example is ‘time’ and ‘times’. They are both related to ‘when’.

Jiaying
沒錯,“Time” 指 “時間,時間點”,加上 “s” 後,則指 “某事發生的次數”,“Time” 和 “times” 的意思不同,但都和某事發生的時間有關,來聽一個使用了 “times(次數)” 的例句。

Example
I have been to Spain three times.
(西班牙我去過三次。)

Beth
So, again, ‘time’ and ‘times’ seem to have a different meaning but they both have a connection to ‘when’.

So, Jiaying, we know there are words with or without -s that seem different but do have a connection in meaning.

Jiaying
是的,上面我們講了在字尾加 “s”,意思發生改變、但仍有所關聯的字。

接著來說另一類字,在英語中,一些字語雖然讀音和拼寫相同,但其含義卻不相關,被稱為 “同音同形異義字”。

Beth
OK. Let’s look at an example of that now, with ‘premise’ and ‘premises’.

Jiaying
單數 “premise” 指 “假定,前提”,請聽例句。

Example
All investigations within the company were based on the premise that men and women are treated equally.
(公司內部的所有調查都以男女平等為前提。)

Jiaying
在 “premise” 後加 “s”,就變成了名詞複數 “premises(房屋建築的廠址,營業場所)”。

Beth
And, it’s worth noting that its singular form is ‘premise’. But, in everyday English, ‘premises’, with an -s, is always used. Have a listen to this example.

Example
The New Year party has been held at the same premises for about ten years.
(新年聚會已經有十年都在同一個場地舉辦。)

Beth
And a similar example can be seen with ‘good’ and ‘goods’.

Jiaying
是的,大多數英語學習者應該都知道,“good” 作形容詞時的意思是 “好的,令人滿意的”。

“Good” 作名詞加上 “s” 後指 “商品,貨物,私人財產”,雖然 “goods” 的單數形式是 “good”,但 “good” 只用於官方檔案中,而在口語交流中,基本都使用 “goods” 來表示 “商品,貨品”。

Beth
That’s right. Listen to this example.

Example
Countries want to import high-quality goods for a low price.
(各國希望以低價進口高品質的商品。)

Jiaying
在聽眾們的問題中還提到了單字 “mean” 和 “means”。

“Mean” 作形容詞有 “刻薄的” 意思,比如:A bully is mean.(欺負他人是很刻薄的),作動詞時,“mean” 表示 “某事物的意思是…” 或 “意味著…”。

Beth
But, ‘means’ with an -s can be used to talk about the way something is done, often in the structure ‘as a means of’.

Jiaying
在 “mean” 後面加 “s”,就變成了 “means”,指 “做某件事情的方法、手段”,請聽例句。

Example
Some deaf people use sign language as a means of communication.
(一些聾人用手語作為交流手段。)

Beth
So, sometimes words appear to change their meaning when they’re followed by an -s. But often there is a connection between them and sometimes they just look and sound the same, but have a different meaning.

Jiaying
好了,謝謝兩位聽眾發來的問題,希望通過我們的講解和例句,大家對單字末尾加 s 後,其含義是否改變有了更深入的理解。

歡迎大家向我們提問,你可以通過我們的微博帳號 “BBC英語教學” 傳送你的問題,也可以將問題傳送至:[email protected]

Bye, everyone!

Beth
Bye!