Make-up’s little secret 化妝品的小秘密

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化妝品行業是一個不小的產業。它能使即將走出家門、面對世界的人們充滿自信。但是,生產化妝品給環境帶來了怎樣的影響?70%的化妝品中都含有一個重要但備受爭議的成分。它是什麼?為什麼這麼有爭議?生產這個化妝品成分給環境造成了什麼損害?如何減輕這種損害?本期 「隨身英語」 討論化妝品背後的小秘密。

Vocabulary: make-up and conservation 詞彙:化妝品和環保

Have you ever gone out without putting your face on? Whether it’s a dash of foundation or a full application of lipstick, blusher or mascara, many would consider make-up essential before being seen. According to a survey by Fragrance Direct, a leading UK beauty retailer, the average UK woman uses twelve beauty products in their beauty regime daily – that’s approximately £500 spent annually. But behind the monetary cost lies another, and it’s one that many consumers may not know about.

70% of cosmetics are manufactured using palm oil – a substance which is controversial, and, according to many, environmentally damaging. Between 1990 and 2008, oil palm tree plantations were responsible for the deforestation of around 8% of the world’s forests, according to the BBC. This leads to a loss of biodiversity and habitat for wildlife – particularly those already under threat, such as the orangutan. And demand for the crop is increasing.

To further complicate things, we can’t simply ban it or stop using it. It’s the most widely used vegetable oil on the planet and responsible for an industry worth more than $40 billion. Stopping its production would ruin many people’s livelihoods worldwide. Worse, alternative vegetable oils, such as rapeseed, coconut or sunflower, would require up to ten times as much land to produce the same amount. This would only exacerbate the issue.

There is hope, though, of sustainable palm oil based on a global standard set by the Round Table on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) – a group of growers, retailers, NGOs and manufacturers. To meet their standards, a company must not clear any primary forest, treat workers fairly, and create wildlife zones, among other things. However, many critics say that these rules are not strict enough. According to a report by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, there is limited evidence of effective conservation as a result.

That said, in 2016, 75% of the total palm oil imports to the UK were sustainable, according to the BBC. Many retailers and leading brands use it, but as a consumer, knowing which is which can be difficult. The RSPO has a logo, but it rarely gets printed on the cosmetic label. The best we can do for now is check the ingredients carefully and do some research.

詞彙表

put your face on 化妝
foundation 粉底
application 塗抹
lipstick 口紅
blusher 腮紅
mascara 睫毛膏
beauty product 美容產品,化妝品
beauty regime 「美容法」
cosmetics 化妝品
palm oil 棕櫚油
plantation 種植園
deforestation 大面積砍伐森林
biodiversity 生物多樣性
habitat 棲息地
wildlife 野生動植物
under threat 受到威脅
crop 莊稼
sustainable 可持續的
cosmetic 化妝品的

測驗與練習

1.  閱讀課文並回答問題。

1. True or false? On average, UK women use approximately a dozen beauty products daily.

2. How does palm oil harm the environment?

3. Why can’t we just stop using palm oil?

4. What must a company do to meet the RSPO standards for sustainable palm oil?

5. Which word used in the article means: 『make a bad situation even worse’?

2. 請在不參考課文的情況下完成下列練習。選擇一個意思恰當的單詞填入句子中的空格處。

1. I’m ready but you’re still _______! How long do you need for a bit of lipstick?!

applying your face on       making your face on

putting your face on         pasting your face on

2. I follow a very simple _______. I only use foundation and a bit of eye-liner.

beauty product                 beauty regime             make-up product           make-up regiment

3. The rainforests are one of the most _______ places on Earth. There are so many species!

biodiversity                      biodiverse                    biodiversify                    biodiversityify

4. African slaves were transported to cotton and tobacco _______ in America in the 1600s.

farms                               crops                            habitats                         plantations

5. Electricity generated from hydroelectric dams and wind power is more _______ than fossil fuel generated power.

under threat                    cosmetic                       sustainable                    wild 

答案

1.  閱讀課文並回答問題。  

1. True or false? On average, UK women use approximately a dozen beauty products daily.
True. According to a survey by Fragrance Direct, a leading UK beauty retailer, the average UK woman uses 12 beauty products in their beauty regime daily.

2. How does palm oil harm the environment?
Palm oil plantations cause deforesting which leads to a loss of biodiversity and wildlife.

3. Why can’t we just stop using palm oil?
It would ruin many people’s livelihoods and alternative oils would make things worse.

4. What must a company do to meet the RSPO standards for sustainable palm oil?
To meet their standards, a company must not clear any primary forest, treat workers fairly and create wildlife zones, among other things.

5. Which word used in the article means: 『make a bad situation even worse’?
Exacerbate (「This would only exacerbate the issue.”)

2. 請在不參考課文的情況下完成下列練習。選擇一個意思恰當的單詞填入句子中的空格處。

1. I’m ready but you’re still putting your face on! How long do you need for a bit of lipstick?!

2. I follow a very simple beauty regime. I only use foundation and a bit of eye-liner.

3. The rainforests are one of the most biodiverse places on Earth. There are so many species!

4. African slaves were transported to cotton and tobacco plantation in America in the 1600s.

5. Electricity generated from hydroelectric dams and wind power is more sustainable than fossil fuel generated power.