The future of electric cars 電動汽車的未來

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去年,英國宣佈從2030年起禁止銷售新的汽油和柴油汽車,這引起了人們的廣泛關注。但是,說起來容易做起來難,全球汽車產業電動化還有很長的路要走。本文淺談電動汽車存在的問題及可能的解決方案。

詞彙:transport 交通運輸

We are all aware of the damaging pollution that’s created by driving petrol and diesel vehicles. Many of the world’s cities are clogged with traffic, creating fumes containing gases such as nitrogen oxides. The solution for a cleaner, greener future could be electric vehicles. But how optimistic should we be?

There was much excitement last year when the UK government announced it will ban the sale of new petrol and diesel cars from 2030. But is that easier said than done? The road to global traffic being totally electric is still a long way off. Currently, battery life is an issue – a fully charged battery won’t take you as far as a full tank of petrol. There are also limited numbers of charging points to plug an EV into.

Of course, technology is always improving. Some of the biggest tech companies, like Google and Tesla, are spending huge amounts of money developing electric cars. And most of the big car manufacturers are now making them too. Colin Herron, a consultant on low-carbon vehicle technology, told the BBC: 「The big leap forward will come with solid state batteries, which will appear first in mobile phones and laptops before they progress to cars.」 These will charge more quickly and give cars a bigger range.

Cost is another issue that may deter people switching to electric power. But some countries offer incentives, such as cutting prices by reducing import taxes, and not charging for road tax and parking. Some also provide exclusive lanes for electric cars to be driven on, overtaking traditional cars which might be stuck in jams. These kinds of measures have made Norway the country with the most electric cars per capita at more than thirty electric cars per 1000 inhabitants.

But Colin Herron warns that 『electric motoring』 doesn’t mean a zero-carbon future. 「It’s emission-free motoring, but the car has to be built, the battery has to be built, and the electricity does come from somewhere.」 Maybe it’s time to think about making fewer journeys or using public transport.

詞彙表

pollution 污染
petrol 汽油
diesel 柴油
vehicle 車輛,交通工具
traffic 交通量
fumes (有害的)氣體,煙霧
nitrogen oxides 氮氧化物
electric vehicle (EV) 電動汽車
battery life 電池使用時間,電池壽命
tank (盛放液體或氣體的)容器,罐,箱
charging point 充電樁
range 行駛距離
electric power 電力
road tax 公路稅
parking 停車
lane 車道
jam 交通堵塞
electric motoring 電動車
zero-carbon 淨零排放
emission-free 零排放,無排放的
public transport 公共交通

測驗與練習

1.  閱讀課文並回答問題。

1. When will the ban on selling petrol and diesel cars in the UK begin?

2. What are needed to recharge the batteries in electric vehicles?

3. True or false? According to Colin Herron, putting solid-state batteries in electric cars first will be a 『great leap forward’.

4. Why might electric cars not get stuck in traffic jams in the future?

5. Will driving an EV be emission-free?

2. 選擇意思恰當的單字或詞組來完成下列句子。

1. Sorry I’m late – there was terrible _______ on the motorway.

jam                               range                        traffic                         highway

2. The company offers some great _______, such as free healthcare and gym membership.

incentivising                 incentive                   incentives                  inventively

3. The _______ of a modern jet aircraft is far greater than the old propeller planes.

diesel                           battery life                 low-carbon                 range

4. The _______ in the city was so bad, I couldn’t even see the other side of the road.

battery                         emission-free            petrol                         pollution

5. The electric buses in the city are _______, so the air seems much cleaner.

free-emission               free-carbon               emission-free             carbon emission

答案

1.  閱讀課文並回答問題。  

1. When will the ban on selling petrol and diesel cars in the UK begin?
The UK government announced it’ll ban the sale of new petrol and diesel cars from 2030.

2. What are needed to recharge the batteries in electric vehicles?
Charging points are needed to recharge the batteries in electric vehicles.

3. True or false? According to Colin Herron, putting solid-state batteries in electric cars first will be a 『great leap forward’.
False. He says:The big leap forward will come with solid state batteries, which will appear first in mobile phones and laptops before they progress to cars.」

4. Why might electric cars not get stuck in traffic jams in the future?
Because, in some places, they will be allowed to drive in exclusive lanes, overtaking traditional cars which might be stuck in traffic jams.

5. Will driving an EV be emission-free?
Driving an EV will be emission-free. However, the car, the battery, as well as producing the electricity that powers the car, could all create emissions. So electric motoring does not mean a zero-carbon future.

2. 選擇意思恰當的單字或詞組來完成下列句子。

1. Sorry I’m late – there was terrible traffic on the motorway.

2. The company offers some great incentives, such as free healthcare and gym membership.

3. The range of a modern jet aircraft is far greater than the old propeller planes.

4. The pollution in the city was so bad, I couldn’t even see the other side of the road.

5. The electric buses in the city are emission-free, so the air seems much cleaner.